By Bloomberg News
The strength of U.S. oil imports in the mid-2000s created a political crisis. President George W. Bush famously said “America is addicted to oil,” and passed measures to curb demand, such as requiring corn ethanol be mixed into gasoline. Ultimately, it was the shale boom, spurred by high oil prices, low interest rates and technological innovation, that began to displace foreign barrels. Although the U.S. is still the world’s second-biggest importer of crude, in September it became a net exporter for the first time in 70 years when oil products like gasoline, diesel and propane are included.
Import dependency weighs similarly on China’s leaders, who have leaned on state-owned energy giants such as PetroChina Co. to boost domestic oil and gas output. The government is also one of the world’s biggest supporters of renewable energy, electric vehicles and high-speed rail, all of which should help depress oil demand in the long run.